The purpose of the article is to present readers with often innovative, original results of their own research, the important issue is the substantive correctness of the presented content.

Each thesis should be supported by arguments, and any doubts, interpretations, or caused by the lack of data, should be clearly marked (eg in the form of questions).

The article should be characterized by a concise style, understandable language, grammatical correctness.

The structure of the article

1. Introduction

Presentation of the purpose of the article, signaling the problem.

It is worth to ensure that the introduction is best written and refined – as the initial part of the article, it can have a big impact on the reader’s reception.

The introduction should include the following: justification of the topic – why we want to present a given issue, in what aspect it will be presented, a brief description of the state of the issue (reference to history, current research). In addition, you can give a brief information about the structure of the article, signaling the issues raised in subsequent stages.

2. The principal part

Developing the content presented in the introduction

In this part it is convenient to introduce a division into chapters (possibly subchapters), in which particular aspects of the topic are analyzed – this allows ordering thoughts and increases the clarity of the article.

This is the central part of the article, based on a thorough analysis of the discussed issue. The issues raised in the introduction of the article are here developed, explained. It should be remembered that each thesis introduced by us should be supported by substantive arguments (from other sources or own research) – categorical statements, not founded on proper argumentation, testify to the author badly. In addition, it should be clearly indicated which views are the position of the author of the article, and which we only report – each cited thought should be noted (eg in a footnote).

Sentences that have a digression or explanation of issues that are less important to the whole article (eg historical mentions) should be transferred to footnotes. Too much of this type of information in the text may give the impression of chaos.

3. Termination

Summary, conclusions (in relation to the problems indicated in the introduction to the article)

This is a very important part of the work, it gives a certain picture of the author’s skills in such matters as drawing conclusions from the discussed issue and noticing the emerging problems.

In the end, the author should refer to the theses presented in the article and summarize his work: whether the indicated problems were solved, what conclusions come from the conducted research. In addition, further research perspectives and directions for the development of the issue can be indicated.


Footnotes in the article should be standardized, comply with the criteria required by the magazine (book) to which we intend to send the article. More on the footnotes can be found in the chapter “Bibliographic description”.


The abstract is a summary containing the most important issues raised in the article, contains information about the methodology and objectives of the work. Detailed requirements depend on the editorial staff.

Scoring of scientific publications

Scientific publications in magazines are subject to a scoring system, which is included in the individual scientific achievements of the authors. Below we present current information about the scoring.

  • What to look for?
  • Did I accomplish the goals set out in the introduction of the article?
  • Do I actually argue the theses put forward?
  • Are any definitions introduced in the article clarified?
  • Did I mark in the text (footnote) any thought borrowed from another author?
  • Are the final conclusions based on the argumentation presented?


The dissertation is one of the most difficult scientific or philosophical statements.


Essay (essai franchise – “rehearsal”) – is a literary form that raises social, philosophical, scientific issues, etc., contains thoughts, opinions, and often critical remarks on a given topic. Characterized by the author’s subjective approach to the presented issue. The author’s reflections expressed in it are presented in a looser, more personal form than in articles or dissertations.

However, a free tone of the statement should not make any work out of an essay, devoid of any criteria.

Therefore, one should take into account the following requirements for essays:

  • linguistic wealth: sophisticated vocabulary, stylistic figures (comparison, metaphors, etc.)
  • fragmentariness – limiting yourself to the chosen issue
  • unconventional, original approach to the topic