What are the basic features of the essay and the scientific text. Provide language and formal features of the aforementioned literature.

Essay

Essay (Latin exagium – weighing, weight test, essai – test, essay – test) is also called – rarely – a literary sketch. This is a genre with sophisticated design and themes, requiring writing skills, rich lexis and a light pen. It combines the elements of a column (eg, anecdotes, stories from life often appear), reportage (eg travel memories) and autobiographical forms (eg a diary – the author of the essay can afford a large subjectivism).

Michel de Montaigne is considered to be the creator of the genre. The basic diagrams of the essay come from his Essais and Essays by Francis Bacon. However, according to the definition of the essay, which is respected today, the ancients wrote it, eg Plato or Seneca.

Features of the essay

The essay is a genre from the borderline of beautiful literature, journalism and scientific literature.

The construction of the essay is free – at any moment, the author can give up the topic and return to it anywhere. And yet the essay should not give a chaotic impression, so the ease that an essayist can afford is apparent …

The composition of the essay should give the impression of being free and unforced, but not chaotic, chaotic.

In the essays, you can easily afford various digressions, your own reflections and reflections, or the manifestation of your individuality.

An important feature of the essay is erudition – the authors often impress with knowledge of philosophy, history, knowledge of antique culture, music, etc. Quite often, Leszek Kołakowski’s essays appear as “practice” texts and, for example, you can see how wide the essayist’s knowledge is: in essays by prof. Kolakowski has a lot of information about philosophy, he also impresses with knowledge about contemporary culture, psychology, and even knowledge of the laws that govern nature.

Another important feature of the essay is a refined, original form. The essayist manifests his individuality not only in the content of the work, but also through form.

Most often we deal with unconventional – often experimental – approach to the subject, surprising reflections, open composition. The author often emphasizes that the topic is not exhausted at all, it ends in a way that provokes the reader to further independent considerations, for example with a provocative question.

The language of the essay

it should be beautiful, neat, but above all – original. That is why in such essays we will often encounter metaphorical formulations, paradoxes, rhetorical questions, ellipses, equivalents of sentences in addition to coordinate sentences, own definitions, sometimes neologisms.

Subjectivism of the essay

Because one of the important features of the essay is subjectivism, the essayist very often reveals himself in the text: he uses the singular person (I) and the possessive pronoun (my) – not only presenting his own views or interpretation of a given work (phenomenon, view), but also mentioning the events of your own life. Important in the essay is to make contact with the recipient, enter into a kind of dialogue with him: the form of the first person of the plural appears, generalizations (“we all know …”, “all over the world …”, “everyone probably at least once in my life “,” To each of us … “), invitations to common considerations (” imagine that … “,” let’s look at … “). He often refers to experiences common to all of us.

Division of essays

The division of essays due to the subject matter is quite detailed. We distinguish, for example, travel, natural, critical, philosophical, historical essays … And this is not the end. In addition, we find essays “mixed”, for example, historical and philosophical.

Remember one fairly important criterion: we divide essays into formal and informal ones. Formal essays resemble a treaty or a dissertation (such as scientific and historical essays), while informal (personal) essays are subjective – the author manifests his individuality both at the level of language and content (interpretive essays have such a character).

When writing an essay, pay attention to the following:

  • knowledge – quote, paraphrase, refer to authorities, try to connect different, sometimes very distant facts and phenomena;
  • subjectivity of the text – present independent, independent judgments – but beware, you can not claim infallibility! The essayist should keep distance to himself and to the world being portrayed;
  • text construction – not good, if the essay will appear chaotic. Remember that you have the right to give titles and subheadings to individual parts of the text;
  • language wealth – use a variety of syntactic constructions, varied vocabulary and phraseology, use different varieties of Polish.

Features of the scientific text

They can be shown in opposition to the essay:

  • orderly, quiet syntax; the most common are statements declaring in the first person plural or impersonal;
  • lack of emotional involvement of the author in the presented problem – the author is objective, tries to present the problem as reliably as possible;
  • there is a strictly professional terminology from a given field of knowledge and dates, surnames, facts, opinions of authorities and other researchers are invoked.

Essay (Latin exagium – weighing, weight test, essai – test, essay – test) is also called – rarely – a literary sketch. This is a genre with sophisticated design and themes, requiring writing skills, rich lexis and a light pen. It combines the elements of a column (eg, anecdotes, stories from life often appear), reportage (eg travel memories) and autobiographical forms (eg a diary – the author of the essay can afford a large subjectivism).

Michel de Montaigne is considered to be the creator of the genre. The basic diagrams of the essay come from his Essais  and Essays by Francis Bacon. However, according to the definition of the essay, which is respected today, the ancients wrote it, eg Plato or Seneca.